For globalization we can see very vast ranges of view , some economist from my country believes that this new exploitation for instance Iranian government believe in this way. They believe that in this theory some countries are coal as fuel for locomotive of rich countries . some economists believes as good opportunity to expedite country’s growth and some of them look at it look like floodwater and we have to built a good dam to use its benefit , but anyhow we can see all economists believe that this globalization theory has pros and cons . so we have to Keep the window open but don’t forget mosquito screen , this way you get the fresh air but also you keep the bugs away
If we think that globalization theory is for changing people situation and condition so first of all We would like to start our essay with two inevitable principle :
- life is about aspiration and opportunity , his meant is if we do not have any opportunity or chance in our life then our life has a concrete ceiling rather than a glass one . we feel that all is for naught .
- Role models and environment .think about your family and your immediate community . if your role models are negative the only aspiration you see around you is illegal , and if your immediate environment stinks , then your well-being is going to take a real hit .
( How the Poor can save capitalism , written by “ John hope Bryant)
We believe that this two principles should be our light in dark moment of our research and study . we mean if globalization can provide hope and self-confidence in poor area and can show them good role model , we can expect that globalization theory can affect poor people life . in this research , first we will consider globalization history , opinions and impact of it on crime , green economic , education , culture , political and economy . and after these topics we will look briefly at new theory so- called “ glolocalization “
Globalization is the free movement of goods, services and people across the world in a seamless and integrated manner. Globalization can be thought of to be the result of the opening up of the global economy and the concomitant increase in trade between nations .
The theory of globalization today is a field of intensive and multidisciplinary debate. Attendees are numerous, and often opposing views of the mentioned phenomena. The efforts towards defining globalization most often highlight its individual aspects. Numerous definitions emphasize economic dimensions of globalization. Removing “artificial” barriers to flow of goods, services and factors of production on the world market (as the consequence of modern development of transport and communication means) is seen as a crucial channel of international integration. Thus, globalization is defined as integration on the basis of the project, which expands the role of markets on a global level (McMichael, 2000).
There are also definitions that emphasize other relevant dimensions of globalization – social, geographic, psychological. Globalization is understood as a social process in which geographic obstacles to social and cultural arrangements lose importance and which geographic obstacles to social and cultural arrangements lose importance and where people are becoming increasingly aware that they lose importance (Waters 1995, p. 3). Another definition of globalization, as intensification of world wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events oc curing many miles away and vice versa, is well known (Giddens, 1990, p. 64). Globalization is also defined as compression of the world and intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole (Robertson, 1992, p. 8).
Even this small sample of definitions is sufficient to conclude that globalization is a complex phenomenon with multiple effects, which makes it hard to define. There are, in fact, three possibilities for defining globalization (Mittelman, 2006, p. 64). First, it can be defined as intensification of global flows of goods and production factors, facilitated by modern transportation and communication means. Globalization can also be defined as a compression of time and space in a way that events in one part of the world have instantaneous effects on distant locations. The third approach is to comprehend globalization as a historical structure of material power. Globalization represents historical transformation in the economy, politics and culture (Mittelman, 2006, p. 64). The driving force of globalization is certainly the progress of technology. It speeds up the effects of globalization, and contributes to essential transformation of the functioning of economic systems. ” … international economy is no longer divided vertically to separate national economies, but involves a number of different levels or types of market activities, which spread horizontally over a wider area of virtual space – replacing physical geography of national borders with quasi geography of market structures, transaction costs and informational cyber space.” (Jakšić, ۱۹۹۷, p. 13)
GLOBALIZATION: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES, IMPACTS
AND INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSE OF THE ECONOMY
Faculty of Economics, University of Niš, Trg kralja Aleksandra Ujedinitelja 11, Serbia
The historical origins of globalization are the subject of ongoing debate. Though several scholars situate the origins of globalization in the modern era, others regard it as a phenomenon with a long history. Some authors have argued that stretching the beginning of globalization far back in time renders the concept wholly inoperative and useless for political analysis.
Perhaps the most extreme proponent of a deep historical origin for globalization was Andre Gunder Frank, an economist associated with dependency theory. Frank argued that a form of globalization has been in existence since the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BC Critics of this idea contend that it rests upon an over-broad definition of globalization.
Thomas L. Friedman divides the history of globalization into three periods: Globalization 1 (1492–۱۸۰۰), Globalization 2 (1800–۲۰۰۰) and Globalization 3 (2000–present). He states that Globalization 1 involved the globalization of countries, Globalization 2 involved the globalization of companies and Globalization 3 involves the globalization of individuals.
Even as early as the Prehistoric period, the roots of modern globalization could be found. Territorial expansion by our ancestors to all five continents was a critical component in establishing globalization. The development of agriculture furthered globalization by converting the vast majority of the world’s population into a settled lifestyle. However, globalization failed to accelerate due to lack of long distance interaction and technology. The contemporary process of globalization likely occurred around the middle of the 19th century as increased capital and labor mobility coupled with decreased transport costs led to a smaller world.
The 13th century world-system
An early form of globalized economics and culture, known as archaic globalization, existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers were focused around the axis of Greek culture over a wide range that stretched from India to Spain, with such cities as Alexandria, Athens, and Antioch at its center. Trade was widespread during that period, and it is the first time the idea of a cosmopolitan culture (from Greek “Cosmopolis”, meaning “world city”) emerged. Others have perceived an early form of globalization in the trade links between the Roman Empire, the Parthian Empire, and the Han Dynasty. The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired the development of the Silk Road, which started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.
The Islamic Golden Age was also an important early stage of globalization, when Jewish and Muslim traders and explorers established a sustained economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops, trade, knowledge and technology. Globally significant crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated across the Muslim world in this period, while the necessity of learning Arabic and completing the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture.
The advent of the Mongol Empire, though destabilizing to the commercial centers of the Middle East and China, greatly facilitated travel along the Silk Road. This permitted travelers and missionaries such as Marco Polo to journey successfully (and profitably) from one end of Eurasia to the other. The Pax Mongolica of the thirteenth century had several other notable globalizing effects. It witnessed the creation of the first international postal service, as well as the rapid transmission of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague across the newly unified regions of Central Asia. These pre-modern phases of global or hemispheric exchange are sometimes known as archaic globalization. Up to the sixteenth century, however, even the largest systems of international exchange were limited to the Old World.
The next phase is known as proto-globalization. It was characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese and Spanish Empires, and later the Dutch and British Empires. In the 17th century, globalization became also a private business phenomenon when chartered companies like British East India Company (founded in 1600), often described as the first multinational corporation, as well as the Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602) were established.
The Age of Discovery brought a broad change in globalization, being the first period in which Eurasia and Africa engaged in substantial cultural, material and biologic exchange with the New World. It began in the late 15th century, when the two Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula – Portugal and Castile – sent the first exploratory voyages around the Cape of Good Hope and to the Americas, “discovered” in 1492 by Christopher Columbus. Shortly before the turn of the 16th century, Portuguese started establishing trading posts (factories) from Africa to Asia and Brazil, to deal with the trade of local products like gold, spices and timber, introducing an international business center under a royal monopoly, the House of India.
Global integration continued with the European colonization of the Americas initiating the Columbian Exchange, the enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases, and culture between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. It was one of the most significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in history. New crops that had come from the Americas via the European seafarers in the 16th century significantly contributed to the world’s population growth.
The 19th century witnessed the advent of globalization approaching its modern form. Industrialization allowed cheap production of household items using economies of scale, while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism. After the First and Second Opium Wars, which opened up China to foreign trade, and the completion of the British conquest of India, the vast populations of these regions became ready consumers of European exports. It was in this period that areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific islands were incorporated into the world system. Meanwhile, the conquest of new parts of the globe, notably sub-Saharan Africa, by Europeans yielded valuable natural resources such as rubber, diamonds and coal and helped fuel trade and investment between the European imperial powers, their colonies, and the United States.
The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea, the various products of the whole earth, and reasonably expect their early delivery upon his doorstep. Militarism and imperialism of racial and cultural rivalries were little more than the amusements of his daily newspaper. What an extraordinary episode in the economic progress of man was that age which came to an end in August 1914.
Between the globalization in the 19th and in the 20th there are significant differences. There are two main points on which the differences can be seen. One point is the global trade in this centuries as well as the capital, investment and the economy.
The global trade in the 20th shows a higher share of trade in merchant production, a growth of the trade in services and the rise of production and trade by multinational firms. The production of merchant goods in the 20th century largely decreased from the levels seen in the 19th. However, the amount of merchant goods that were produced for the merchandise trade grew. The trade in services also grew more important in the 20th compared to the 19th century. The last point that distinguishes the global trade in the 19th century compared to the global trade in the 20th century, is the extent of multinational cooperation. In the 20th century you can see a “quantum leap” in multinational cooperation compared to the 19th century. Before the 20th century began, there were just Portfolio investment, but no trade-related or production-relation Direct investment.
Commercial integration has improved since last century, barriers that inhibit trade are lower and transport costs have decreased. Multinational trade contracts and agreements have been signed, like the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the European Union (EU) has been hugely involved in eliminating tariffs between member states, and the World Trade Organization. From 1890 and up to World War I instability in trade was a problem, but in the post war period there has mostly been economic expansion which leads to stability. Nations have to take care of their own products; they have to make sure that foreign goods do not suffocate their domestic products causing unemployment and maybe social instability. Technological changes have caused lower transporting costs; it takes just a few hours to transport goods between continents to-day, instead of weeks or even months in the nineteenth century.
By consideration financial crisis one key difference is the monetary regime. In the 19th century it occurred under the fixed exchange rates of the gold standard. But in the 20th century it took place in a regime of managed flexibility. Furthermore, in the 19th century countries had developed effective lenders of last resort, but the same was not true at the periphery and countries there suffered the consequences. A century later there was a domestic safety net in most emerging countries so that banking panics were changed into situations where the debts of an insolvent banking system were taken over by the government. The recovery from banking crisis is another key difference. It has tended to begin earlier in the recent period than in the typical crisis episode a hundred years ago. In the 19th century there were no international rescue packages available to emerging economies. But in the recent period such rescues were a typical component of the financial landscape all over the world.
The flows information were an important downside in 19th century. Prior to the Transatlantic cable and the Radiotelephone, it used to take very long for information to go from one place to another. So this means that it was very difficult to analyze the information. For instance, it was not so easy to distinguish good and bad credits. Therefore, the information asymmetry played a very important role in international investments. The railway bonds serve as a great example. There was also many contracting problems. It was very difficult for companies working overseas to manage their operations in other parts of the world, so this was clearly a big barrier to investment. Several macroeconomic factors such as exchange risks and uncertain monetary policies were a big barrier for international investments as well. The accounting standards in the U.S. were relatively underdeveloped in the 19th century. The British investors played a very important role in transferring their accounting practices to the new emerging markets.
Aftermath of World War I: collapse of globalization
The first phase of “modern globalization” began to break down at the beginning of the 20th century, with World War I. The European-dominated network were increasingly confronted with images and stories of ‘others’, thus, then took it upon themselves to take the role of world’s guardians of universal law and morality. Racist and unequal practices became also part of their practices in search of materials and resources that from other regions of the world. The increase of world trade before beginning in 1850 right before World War I broke out in 1914 were incentives for bases of direct colonial rule in the global South. Since other European currencies were becoming quite largely circulated, the need to own resource bases became imperative. The novelist VM Yeates criticised the financial forces of globalization as a factor in creating World War I. Financial forces as a factor for creating World War 1 seem to be partly responsible. An example of this would be France’s colonial rule over most of Africa during the 20th century. Before World War I broke out, there was no specific aims for the wars in Africa from the French, which left Africans in a “lost” state. Military potential of Africa was first to be emphasized unlike its economic potential…at least at first. France’s interest in the military potential of French Africa took a while to be accepted. Africans in the French army were treated with feelings of inferiority from the French. As for the economic incentive for colonial rule came in 1917 when France’s was faced with a crisis of food supply. This coming after the outbreak of the war which had left France without the ability to support itself agriculturally since France had a shortage of fertilizers and machinery in 1917.
Post-World War II: globalization resurgent
Globalization, since World War II, is partly the result of planning by politicians to break down borders hampering trade. Their work led to the Bretton Woods conference, an agreement by the world’s leading politicians to lay down the framework for international commerce and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to oversee the processes of globalization. Globalization was also driven by the global expansion of multinational corporations based in the United States and Europe, and worldwide exchange of new developments in science, technology and products, with most significant inventions of this time having their origins in the Western world according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Worldwide export of western culture went through the new mass media: film, radio and television and recorded music. Development and growth of international transport and telecommunication played a decisive role in modern globalization.
These institutions include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), and the International Monetary Fund. Globalization has been facilitated by advances in technology which have reduced the costs of trade, and trade negotiation rounds, originally under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which led to a series of agreements to remove restrictions on free trade.
Since World War II, barriers to international trade have been considerably lowered through international agreements – GATT. Particular initiatives carried out as a result of GATT and the World Trade Organization (WTO), for which GATT is the foundation, have included:
- Promotion of free trade:
- Elimination oftariffs; creation of free trade zones with small or no tariffs
- Reduced transportation costs, especially resulting from development ofcontainerization for ocean shipping.
- Reduction or elimination ofcapital controls
- Reduction, elimination, or harmonization ofsubsidies for local businesses
- Creation of subsidies for global corporations
- Harmonization ofintellectual property laws across the majority of states, with more restrictions
- Supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions (e.g.patents granted by China would be recognized in the United States)
Cultural globalization, driven by communication technology and the worldwide marketing of Western cultural industries, was understood at first as a process of homogenization, as the global domination of American culture at the expense of traditional diversity. However, a contrasting trend soon became evident in the emergence of movements protesting against globalization and giving new momentum to the defense of local uniqueness, individuality, and identity.
The Uruguay Round (۱۹۸۶ to 1994) led to a treaty to create the WTO to mediate trade disputes and set up a uniform platform of trading. Other bilateral and multilateral trade agreements, including sections of Europe’s Maastricht Treaty and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have also been signed in pursuit of the goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade.
World exports rose from 8.5% in 1970, to 16.2% of total gross world product in 2001.
In the 1990s, the growth of low cost communication networks allowed work done using a computer to be moved to low wage locations for many job types. This included accounting, software development, and engineering design.
In late 2000s, much of the industrialized world entered into a deep recession. Some analysts say the world is going through a period of deglobalization after years of increasing economic integration. China has recently[when?] become the world’s largest exporter surpassing Germany.
Deepak Lal opinions:
Globalizing capitalism is opposed by two major groups – the cultural nationalists in the third world, who fear the westernization it may bring and the New Dirigistes, proponents of the “third way’” in the West who bear the ancient hatred of capitalism on their sleeves.
Also , In his Imagined Communities, the political scientist Benedict Anderson identifies four waves of nationalism. The first was the “creole” wars of liberation in North and South America, prompted by the policy of the European powers of barring the entry of the “creole” elite to higher official and political office in the metropole, even as the
“peninsular” had access to high positions in both the colonies and the metropole.
The second wave of nationalism was the result of the spread of a “vernacular” nationalism. The threat that this vernacular nationalism posed to the dynasts of Europe led to the third wave of nationalism – “official” nationalism, whereby the dynasts sought to identify themselves with the new found vernacular “nation”. The spread of this official nationalism was in turn to lead to the scramble for empire and the First World War.
The final phase of nationalism was in areas where directly or indirectly the spread of Western imperialism had damaged the “amour propre” of indigenous high status groups, as in India.
However according to his opinion nationalism is a barrier of globalization .
Technology impact on globalization :
THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE on the global economic structure are creating immense transformations in the way companies and nations organize production, trade goods, invest capital, and develop new products and processes. Sophisticated information technologies permit instantaneous communication among the far-flung operations of global enterprises. New materials are revolutionizing sectors as diverse as construction and communications. Advanced manufacturing technologies have altered long-standing patterns of productivity and employment. Improved air and sea transportation has greatly accelerated the worldwide flow of people and goods.
All this has both created and mandated greater interdependence among firms and nations. The rapid rate of innovation and the dynamics of technology flows mean that comparative advantage is short-lived. To maximize returns, arrangements such as transnational mergers and shared production agreements are sought to bring together partners with complementary interests and strengths. This permits both developed and developing countries to harness technology more efficiently, with the expectation of creating higher standards of living for all involved.
Rapid technological innovation and the proliferation of transnational organizations are driving the formation of a global economy that sometimes conflicts with nationalistic concerns about maintaining comparative advantage and competitiveness. It is indeed a time of transition for firms and governments alike. This book provides a broad overview of these issues and seeks to shed light on such areas as the changing nature of international competition, influences of new technologies on international trade, and economic and social concerns arising from differences in national cultures and standards of living associated with adoption and use of new technologies.
(H.GUYFORD STEVER AND JANET H.MUROYAMA)
Media and Technology’s influence :
- Technology is changing our brain : 15 minutes exposure to the internet rewire the human brain
- Attention span is smaller because of internet and it is roughly 29 seconds
- Much more connected
- Number of facebook applicants (June 22, 2016) : Today, there are roughly 2 billion smartphones in use in the world and out of that stunning number ۸۵% of smartphone owners use Facebook app. Among all Facebook users ۴۷% access it via mobile (in US this number reaches 68%). In fact about ۶% of ALL digital time is spent on Facebook and this figure grows steadily. Such grandiose scale of adoption and usage have lead to degrees of separation between Facebook users equal to 4, meaning every Facebook user is connected with all other Facebook users via 3 individuals.
Donald Trump says Facebook and Twitter ‘helped him win’
“I think it helped me win all of these races where they’re spending much more money than I spent.”
The president-elect specified that social networks helped him win without him needing to spend as much as the Clinton campaign on other advertising, both digital and traditional. “I think that social media has more power than the money they spent,” he told host Lesley Stahl, a hypothesis that he said he “proved” to a certain extent.
Globalization Impact on Crime :
CFR’s Stewart Patrick and Phil Williams of the University of Pittsburgh discuss :
- Transnational criminals have been one of the biggest beneficiaries of globalization
- We’ve got some reregulation to try to deal with money laundering … but it’s not particularly effective
- Terrorists, insurgents, and warlords all rely on illegal activities as a funding mechanism
- Illicit networks are challenging to states because states are militarily and diplomatically organized to deal with other states
Globalization Impact on education :
Globalization and rapid growth in technology especially internet or IOT have changed level of education . right now we can find lots of training movie on TED , YOUTUBE and anywhere .
Globalization Impact on Culture :
There is no doubt that globalization can have bad impact on culture even it can change people attitudes , for instance , One important effect of the creation of a cosmopolitan bourgeoisie is that its members can, if they are in the political arena, mitigate the nationalist and illiberal impulses of their countrymen. Thus, it is reported that many of the “princelings” in China who have been educated at Ivy League universities have lobbied their elders to reduce the sentence of the democracy advocate and Nobel laureate, Liu Xiaobo (Deepak Lal)
Globalization Impact on economy :
First of all , it is helpful to start with some basic stylized facts about economic growth. This section documents six stylized facts that are particularly relevant to the policy context. The following section provides an interpretation that is informed by these stylized facts and try to make sense of success and failure around the world against this empirical background.
Stylized Fact 1: Growth Has Increased over Time
Stylized Fact 2: Convergence Has Been the Exception Rather than the Rule
Stylized Fact 3: Economic Development Goes Hand-in-Hand with Productive Diversification
Stylized Fact 4: Historically, Industrialization and Manufactured Exports Have Been the Most
Reliable Levers for Rapid and Sustained Growth
Stylized Fact 5: Manufacturing Industries Are “Special” in That They Tend to Exhibit
Stylized Fact 6: The Most Successful Economies Have Not Been the Ones with the Least State Intervention
For more information about these six stylized fact you can see The Past, Present, and Future of Economic Growth ,Dani Rodrik
Also it is better to see digram of international financial integration Ratio which shows considerable growth .
As it is so important to study GDP growth , Life expectancy and income to find out what happen to economic situation .
As we can see there is rapid growth in life expectancy and GDP/capita , especially during 1990 to 2015 some of countries have jumped their positions . ( for more information you can check http://www.gapminder.org )
Now we will consider some famous market which should know more about them to make any conclusion about globalization :
- Globalization impact on Financial Market
There is a vast literature on …nancial globalization. The risks attached to international …nancial integration have received much attention, although the main focus has been on the vulnerabilities of emerging and developing economies.1 In particular, the 1990s emergingmarket crises led to a much more skeptical view of full-scale …nancial integration for these economies (see, amongst many others, Rodrik 1998, Rodrik 2000, Obstfeld 2009, Prasad and Rajan 2009). In contrast, there was more optimism about the impact of …nancial globalisation on advanced economies. In particular, the empirical evidence suggested that …nancial globalization delivered bene…ts in terms of improved macroeconomic performance, greater risk sharing and institutional development for countries that passed threshold levels of income per capita, even if these gains were quantitatively relatively minor in scale (Kose and others 2009a, 2009b, 2009c). In terms of risk factors for advanced economies, the main focus was on the emergence of global current account imbalances, with the funding of the large US current account de…cit a primary concern. However, the risk of a large-scale …nancial crisis was not much discussed, with some well-known exceptions (Rajan 2005, Stulz 2005)
It is possible to identify two main channels by which …nancial globalization contributed to the …nancial conditions that ultimately gave rise to the crisis.First, the participation of foreign investors (especially foreign banks) fueled the accelerated growth of the asset-backed securities markets in the United States that were central in the original market panic in 2007-2008. As documented by Acharya and Schnabl (2009) and Bernanke et al (2011), European banks were major purchasers of asset-backed securities. In large part, these banks also obtained dollar funding in the US money markets,as detailed by Shin (2011).
For this reason, the role of European banks in enabling the
expansion of the US ABS markets did not jump out of the balance of payments data,
although the implicit risk exposure of European parent banks grew in line with these US
Second, …nancial globalization permitted rapid growth in the balance sheets of many
banks. This took place at two levels. In relation to globally-active banks, the size
and complexity of these banks grew rapidly, making it di¢ cult for national regulators to
adequately police risk pro…les. In addition, the capacity of local banks to expand lending
by tapping international wholesale markets fueled credit growth in a number of countries.
Third, the growing role of emerging markets in the world …nancial system may also have
contributed to the build up of weaknesses in credit markets. In particular, the general equilibrium impact of the demand for low-risk debt assets from emerging-market o¢ cial
۸ sources and the increased supply of equity opportunities in these countries may have added fuel to the securitization boom (see, amongst many others, Bernanke et al 2011).
In these ways, although there is no easy way to quantify its importance relative to other
factors, …nancial globalization plausibly contributed to the credit market vulnerabilities
that were at the origin of the global …nancial crisis. In essence, …nancial globalization
magni…ed the impact of underlying distortions, such as inadequate regulation of credit
markets and banks, by allowing the scaling-up of …nancial activities that might have faced capacity limits in autarkic …nancial systems (see also Borio and Disyatat 2011).
Financial Globalisation and the Crisis
Philip R. Lane
Trinity College Dublin and CEPR
My opinions about any possible further crisis :
Two main points for any future crisis are :
* interest rates in big countries at the moment are so low , so the government of big
countries can not use the policy of decreasing interest rates to stimulate their economy .
* as majority of countries have problem with their debt and their debt to GDP are so high ,they can not penetrate money to market . If they want to save banks who will save them with this situation .
- Globalization impact on green economy :
Although globalization can help create additional value and increased efficiencies for national economies, it has an obvious negative impact in terms of the ecological costs of transportation. However, global trade’s more severe but less-understood threat to sustainability is its incompatibility with the carrying capacities of our natural ecosystems.
by Asheen Phansey, President of Quaking Aspen, LLC and Adjunct Professor, Babson College. Read Asheen’s Blog. Follow Asheen on Twitter. Asheen is presenting “Working With Biomimicry as an Innovation Framework” at the Sustainable Brands’۱۰ Conference.
Most market-based solutions necessitate putting a monetary value on nature, which plays into the paradigm of commercialisation: the value of the natural world is reduced to its potential for generating financial returns. Such solutions adhere to the logic of a neoliberal economic model that continues to dominate mainstream policy discourse even despite its role in precipitating the global financial crisis in 2008. But endless growth is a primary driver of resource consumption and environmental degradation, and GDP is now widely regarded as an inappropriate measure for human progress. On the question of whether economic growth can ever be sufficiently green, the evidence suggests that we cannot decarbonise economic activity fast enough to meet pressing climate targets.
Internationally, Tourism can make an essential contribution to economic recovery and is acknowledged as playing a vital role in the transformation into a green economy (World Tourism Organization,2010).In this respect nature-based tourism experiences evidently can become a significant feature of sustainable development. Globalization has transformed the world into a limited, even enclosed space, as well as it has transformed life, because of the need to reduce it to patterns. The success in tourism depends on the counteroffer, on the chance to escape at least for a brief period. Gunn defines1 “the tourist destination from the spatial point of view as a geographic region containing a critical mass of development that satisfies the objectives of the tourist. The main elements from the perspective of the tourist destination are the natural resources, the accessible transportation, the attractive services, the promotion and the information.” But we have to add the most important element in order to have a real, stable tourist destination with chances to last: People who live in the region, the ones who are able to perform quality services and who may shape their life so that the “feelings” be possible in high quantities.2 They transform the daily loneliness into participation, in the same way as they want it during their holiday; the need to socialize is painful for those who are sentenced to the daily routine by the performing economic systems. A tourist destination means a multitude of elements, practically its natural ensemble, which is also built and human. “The artificial destinations” such as the holiday clubs, the cruises, start to be less popular, these being the image of a chaotic globalization in tourism. The clients who afford to tour return to the authentic. The effort must belong to the entire community: not only have the personnel from the tourist sector contributed to its success, but also all the people, including the local population. It is obvious that the Romanian tourism construction must be started from the “destination”3. For now, from the perspective of global tourism, of the tourist destinations, the Romanian tourism exists partially, but it does not operate at all wanted parameters. We must insist due to the importance of this concept. The destination is built for the tourist as well as the local people. It is also different from others, but it has a similar level of comfort and organization of other destinations, so that the local person as well as the tourist should feel like home, through the natural facilities, in a clean and sustainable environment.
(Academic paper (PDF): Globalization – Tourism a Model from Green Economy. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220027463_Globalization_- _Tourism_a_Model_from_Green_Economy [accessed Apr 12, 2017].)
- Globalization impact on China
China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 was a momentous decision made by the top leadership. It was a big gamble for the Chinese enterprises, because prior to the accession, they were extremely weak in every measure compared with global firms (Nolan 2001; 2004). Furthermore, they were either not consulted or excluded from negotiations). Contrary to the conventional wisdom that China’s deep integration into the global economy is a natural trend of economic development; I would argue that it was not the economic success in the 1990s that naturally led to China’s deep integration, but the predicament in the country’s reforms and industrialisation that forced China to join the WTO at its earliest possible time to keep the economy growing. Premier Zhu Rongji stated it clearly to Stephan Roach, chief economist of Morgan Stanley in March 2002; ‘If China did not join the WTO, it is impossible to restructure and sustain economic growth’.
But we can see the following benefits of globalization on China :
- Economic growth- as per the statistics if 2003 china made nearly 1413us billion dollar which stand it in sixth posotion.during 1965 to 1979 the gdp of china grew with 6.4% but after entering into a global market china made its gdp nearly 10% in 1980 to 1990. In 2005 its stated that the industrial production in chin is increased by 15% while consumer demand is increased by 10%.
- economic development- as per the index shown by human development china ranked 94th and according to the china’s current scenario only the 16.6% of popultion is in poverty. Which is deceasing continuing decreasing in last 23 years.
- increase in savings:- us dollar 560 billion was the saving deposit of the civilians in china in 1997 which is around 218 times more than that in 1978. Which is 32% increases in this particular gap of year. Apart from this currency saving, stocks and debentures and the financial asset in also increases by us dollar 725 billion.
- improve in tourism, export and import :- in 2003 when china takes the membership of wto this made china a more attractive country. People from all over the world come to visit china. Many big entrpreneur come here to invest in china. In 2003 export in increases around 32.3%and import is 40.5%. and tourism industry also increases by9.7%.
- improve in life styele and increasing employment opportunity:- the best effect of globalization for the developong country like china is improving in the life style . the living standard of all community in that country will drasticaaly inmroved. The employment oppurtunity for public in developing country is also increases by the effect of globalization.
Globalization Impact on government and political :
According to Prof. Rodrik , It is difficult to find a strong correlation, in either direction, between standard measures of government activism (such as tax rates or indices of market restrictions) and rates of economic growth. It is easy to conclude that extreme controls of the central planning type, which suffocate the private sector, are bad for growth. But for countries that lie between central planning and laissez-faire—that is, almost all countries in the world—less intervention is not necessarily good
for performance . (The Past, Present, and Future of Economic Growth ,Dani Rodrik )
Also we should know that majority of governments are not happy with globalization because they will lose some of their tools including media , control of border and etc .
For instance , the powerful premier Wen Jiabao has recently warned of the danger that economic growth will be hampered unless political reform gets under way. (why nations fail)
It shows that despite China has thus achieved economic growth not thanks to its extractive political institutions, but despite them: its successful growth experience over the last three decades is due to a radical shift away from extractive economic institutions and toward significantly more inclusive economic institutions, which was made more difficult, not easier, by the presence of highly authoritarian, extractive political institutions.
this maybe happens because of globalization , one time , George H. W. Bush summarized U.S. policy toward Chinese democracy as “Trade freely with China and time is on our side . . (why nations fail)
of course there is modernization theory which claim that all societies, as they grow, are headed toward a more modern, developed,and civilized existence, and in particular toward democracy. Many followers of modernization theory also claim that, like democracy, inclusive institutions will emerge as a by-product of the growth process . this theory formulated by Seymour Martin Lipset . of course the author of why nations fail , does not agree with him .
control of media is so important for any government , we can find good example of it in the book of why nations fail :
An extreme illustration of this comes from Alberto Fujimori’s rule in Peru. Though originally democratically elected, Fujimori soon set up a dictatorial regime in Peru, mounting a coup
while still in office in 1992. Thereafter, though elections continued, Fujimori built a corrupt regime and ruled through repression and bribery. In this he relied heavily on his righthand man, Valdimiro Montesinos, who headed the powerful national intelligence service of Peru. Montesinos was an
organized man, so he kept good records of how much the administration paid different individuals to buy their loyalty,even videotaping many actual acts of bribery. There was a logic to this. Beyond just recordkeeping, this evidence made sure that the accomplices were now on record and
would be considered as guilty as Fujimori and Montesinos. After the fall of the regime, these records fell into the hands of journalists and authorities. The amounts are revealing about the value of the media to a dictatorship. A Supreme Court judge was worth between $5,000 and $10,000 a month, and politicians in the same or different parties werepaid similar amounts. But when it came to newspapers and TV stations, the sums were in the millions. Fujimori and Montesinos paid $9 million on one occasion and more than
$۱۰ million on another to control TV stations. They paid more than $1 million to a mainstream newspaper, and to other newspapers they paid any amount between $3,000 and $8,000 per headline. Fujimori and Montesinos thought that controlling the media was much more important than controlling politicians and judges. One of Montesinos’s henchmen, General Bello, summed this up in one of the videos by stating, “If we do not control the television we do not do anything.
Also we can see a good summarize for some of countries ‘ idea :
As a Chinese commentator summarized, “To uphold the leadership of the Party in political reform,
three principles must be followed: that the Party controls the armed forces; the Party controls cadres; and the Party controls the news.
(a portmanteau of globalization and localization) is the adaptation of international products around the particularities of a local culture in which they are sold. The process allows integration of local markets into world markets.
The term first appeared in a late 1980s publication of the Harvard Business Review. At a 1997 conference on “Globalization and Indigenous Culture”, sociologist Roland Robertson stated that glocalization “means the simultaneity – the co-presence – of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies.”
McDonald’s restaurants‘ menus adopted the practice and customized its menus to suit local tastes in various countries. This phenomenon is the relative inverse of Americanization and the suppressing of local preferences in favor of providing goods and media whose content has been dictated by foreign entities. Glocalization can also involve the use of culturally friendly media to encourage the acceptance of foreign products among a local audience.
Variety of uses
- Individuals, households and organisations maintaining interpersonalsocial networks that combine extensive local and long-distance interactions.
- The declaration of a specified locality – a town, city, or state – as world territory, with responsibilities and rights on a world scale: a process that started in France in 1950 and originally calledmundialization.
Glocalization is the adaptation of globally marketed products and services to local markets. Various analogical descriptions have been proposed, including an octopus and its tentacles, a node in a network of social relations, and world encirclement.
Local strategy approach vs. global strategy approach
The glocal strategy approach is different from the local strategy approach mainly due to the different outlooks on the standardization and local adaptations of products and business activities. Although the global strategy approach does recognize the need to localize products in the global community, local strategy stresses the importance of local adaptations in relation to the local marketplace. Also, while global strategy emphasizes standardization of global products, local strategy explains the balance that must exist between the standardization and local adaptation of business activities and products.
History of the concept
The concept comes from the Japanese word dochakuka, which means global localization. It originally referred to the adaptation of farming techniques to local conditions. It became a buzzword when Japanese business adopted it in the 1980s. The word stems from Manfred Lange, head of the German National Global Change Secretariat, who used “glocal” in reference to Heiner Benking’s exhibit: Blackbox Nature: Rubics Cube of Ecology at an international science and policy conference.
The term entered use in the English-speaking world via Robertson in the 1990s, Canadian sociologists Keith Hampton and Barry Wellman in the late 1990s and Zygmunt Bauman. Erik Swyngedouw was another early adopter.
Glocalisation works best for companies which have decentralized authority. The cost to the companies increases as they cannot standardize products and projects, different cultures have different needs and wants which is highlighted in this challenge. An example of a company succeeding in creating new products for their emerging market is McDonald’s new rice meals in India and China  This shows that McDonald’s has done research on and understands their new market’s requirements for a successful takeaway food. This however can be very costly and time-consuming.
An example of a global business that has faced challenges due to localization of their products can be presented through the closing of a Starbucks in the Forbidden City of China in 2007. Starbuck’s attempt to localize into the culture of China by accommodating their menu to local elements such as serving “green tea frappuccinos” and enlarging their stores was prevalent in most areas of China, but when Starbucks spread to the Forbidden City, a problem surrounding cultural identity arose. Factors surrounding “western influences” related to Starbucks were seen as a threat by a web-based campaign who was successful in initiating the closing of the Starbucks in the Forbidden City. The leader of this web-based campaign, whose name is Rui, in his words had stated “All I want is that Starbucks move out of the Forbidden City peacefully and quietly, and we’ll continue enjoying Starbucks coffee elsewhere in the city.” 
Although there are many challenges to globalization when done right it has many benefits, allowing companies to reach a larger target market is just one of them. Society also benefits when globalization occurs as an increase in market competition generally pushes the price of products down which means the consumers benefit by gaining a lower price point. This decreases the inequality gap as people who couldn’t previously afford products when the market was controlled by local monopolies are able to purchase the product for cheaper.
Although globalization has benefits to the consumer it does not always benefit the producer with newer and smaller companies struggling to keep up with the low production costs of the multi-national competitors. This results in either a higher price and loss of consumers or a lower profit margin which in turn results in less competition within the market.
Glocalization of education has been proposed in the specific areas of politics, economics, culture, teaching, information, organization, morality, spirituality, religion and “temporal” literacy. The recommended approach is for local educators to consult global resources for materials and techniques and then adapt them for local use. For example, in information, it involves advancing computer and media understanding to allow students and educators to look beyond their local context.
In the media
Besides the usage of Internet, television and commercials have become useful strategies that global companies have used to help localize their products. Companies, such as McDonald’s, have relied on television and commercials in not only the Western Hemisphere but in other parts of the world to attract a varying ranges of audiences in accordance to the demographic of the local area. For example, they have used mascots ranging anywhere from a male clown in the Western Hemisphere to attract younger audiences to an “attractive” female clown in Japan to attract older audiences.
However, McDonald’s has faced challenges in adapting to the local customs when promoting its products through television in countries such as China. Programs and commercials air differently in China in comparison to Western commercials. In other words, commercials are usually skipped over in countries such as China, so McDonald’s advertises its products through newspapers and magazines.
Glocalization vs Globalisation
In the truer sense decentralisation and localisation of a generic global product is at best an exercise in imperialism and at worst an attempt at homogeny. Understanding global issues and its effect and interconnection with local matters creates a greater understanding. It is not primarily a business or economic issue. For example- glocal politics with regard to the migrant crisis. Or glocal currency. It is philosophically a challenge for all. One cannot exist without the other.
You must be shapeless, formless, like water. When you pour water in a cup, it becomes the cup. When you pour water in a bottle, it becomes the bottle. When you pour water in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Water can drip and it can crash. Become like water my friend
However , competition makes and forces all firms to enhance and improve their qualities , Prices and they have to build their brand to be able to compete with their bitter rivals . so in this case , there are lots of benefits and advantages for customers .
Critics of global economic integration warn that (Watkins, 2002, Yusuf, 2001):
- The growth of international trade is exacerbating income inequalities, both between and within industrialized and less industrialized nations
- Global commerce is increasingly dominated by transnational corporations which seek to maximize profits without regard for the development needs of individual countries or the local populations
- Protectionist policies in industrialized countries prevent many producers in the Third World from accessing export markets;
- The volume and volatility of capital flows increases the risks of banking and currency crises, especially in countries with weak financial institutions
- Competition among developing countries to attract foreign investment leads to a “race to the bottom” in which countries dangerously lower environmental standards
- Cultural uniqueness is lost in favor of homogenization and a “universal culture” that draws heavily from American culture
Critics of economic integration often point to Latin America as an example where increased openness to international trade had a negative economic effect. Many governments in Latin America (e.g. Peru) liberalized imports far more rapidly than in other regions. In much of Latin America, import liberalization has been credited with increasing the number of people living below the USD $1 a day poverty line and has perpetuated already existing inequalities (Watkins, 2002).
Positive effects of globalization for developing country business
Conversely, globalization can create new opportunities, new ideas, and open new markets that an entrepreneur may have not had in their home country. As a result, there are a number of positives associated with globalization:
- It creates greater opportunities for firms in less industrialized countries to tap into more and larger markets around the world
- This can lead to more access to capital flows, technology, human capital, cheaper imports and larger export markets
- It allows businesses in less industrialized countries to become part of international production networks and supply chains that are the main conduits of trade
For example, the experience of the East Asian economies demonstrates the positive effect of globalization on economic growth and shows that at least under some circumstances globalization decreases poverty. The spectacular growth in East Asia, which increased GDP per capita by eightfold and raised millions of people out of poverty, was based largely on globalization—export-led growth and closing the technology gap with industrialized countries (Stiglitz, 2003). Generally, economies that globalize have higher growth rates than non-globalizers (Bhagwati and Srinivasan, 2002).
Also, the role of developing country firms in the value chain is becoming increasingly sophisticated as these firms expand beyond manufacturing into services. For example, it is now commonplace for businesses in industrialized countries to outsource functions such as data processing, customer service and reading x-rays to India and other less industrialized countries (Bhagwati et al, 2004). Advanced telecommunications and the Internet are facilitating the transfer of these service jobs from industrialized to less industrialized and making it easier and cheaper for less industrialized country firms to enter global markets. In addition to bringing in capital, outsourcing helps prevent “brain drain” because skilled workers may choose to remain in their home country rather than having to migrate to an industrialized country to find work.
Further, some of the allegations made by critics of globalization are very much in dispute—for example, that globalization necessarily leads to growing income inequality or harm to the environment. While there are some countries in which economic integration has led to increased inequality—China, for instance—there is no worldwide trend (Dollar, 2003). With regard to the environment, international trade and foreign direct investment can provide less industrialized countries with the incentive to adopt, and the access to, new technologies that may be more ecologically sound (World Bank Briefing Paper, 2001). Transnational corporations may also help the environment by exporting higher standards and best practices to less industrialized countries .
According to Dr. Raul Fernandez (4/10/2017 Opinion: Emerging countries must avoid globalization ‘paradox’ ۲/۳) , “If we compare the percentage of people living in the world below the poverty level of 30 years ago and now, despite all the sensationalist news to the contrary, we will see that the world has brought more people out of poverty in this period than in any period of its history .To give some figures, in 1993, according to the definition of the World Bank, there were about 2 billion people in the world living in extreme poverty.
By 2106, that figure has fallen to less than 700 million. These are 1.3 billion people, equivalent to the entire population of the United States, Europe and Latin America together, who emerged from extreme poverty.
In women’s education, another indicator of progress, also the change is impressive. In 1980, 50% of the women in the world could be classified as illiterate. Despite all the cultural pressure against women’s education in some regions of the world, that number today has fallen to less than 17%.
I could continue to give out figures, like increase of GDP and other indicators but the point is clear. “
It seems difficult to believe all this good news, if we look at it from the perspective of one of the traditionally “rich” countries. Today, it is much more difficult to get out of poverty for those born in a poor neighborhood of a US city than for those born in many countries of emerging economies.
Part of this, no doubt, is due to globalization, excessive urbanization and partly also to what is needed to get out of being classified as poor.”
“Here is the paradox: in the countries with developed economies, there has not been the same advance in the education of the population as in the demand for labor. Education is still geared towards an industry that does not need manpower, while the industry that does need it cannot not get enough qualified people. Emerging countries should take note to avoid making the same mistake.
The world, by 2050, will need to produce 50% more food than it does today. Latin America is the only continent with the capacity to increase its production at this rate, but it will only achieve this with technology and rural education program in line with the needs of modern agriculture.”
Also it is good consider always Prof. Rodrik’s theory which says : “I have an “impossibility theorem” for the global economy that is like that. It says that democracy, national sovereignty and global economic integration are mutually incompatible: we can combine any two of the three, but never have all three simultaneously and in full.”
By the time Donald Trump became USA president , we face new perspective of USA policy . his new policy maybe will change globalization and glocalization situation .at the end , I would like to draw your kind attention to article from bloomberg view , it shows we will face Turbulent World .
new U.S. trade restrictions would likely be met by retaliatory measures by trading partners. Copycat higher tariffs could limit, for example, the market for Apple computers in Germany, or sales of Boeing aircraft to China.
In short, the free flow of goods and services helps sustain U.S. economic growth, create jobs in the export sector, and validate higher market valuations. Still, Trump and his advisers may have a valid point in arguing that the U.S. is not on a level playing field in dealing with trade partners. The U.S. is more open in trade than many other countries, and countries with significant surpluses in the current account of the balance of payments – – the sum of the trade balance, net interest and dividend income plus transfers – – are able to use the excess to purchase not only U.S. Treasuries but also ownership in U.S. companies.
Responding to this situation by raising trade barriers and reducing imports would limit choices for U.S. consumers, and cause overall domestic prices to increase faster. Eventually, these developments would be market unfriendly. The prospect of faster inflation would force the Federal Reserve to speed up rate hikes – – a negative for equity markets. Bond yields would increase in response to rising inflation expectations, and higher mortgage rates would hurt housing that has been a mainstay of the post-crisis economic recovery.
The Trump Trade Policies That Can Benefit Financial Markets
MARCH 31, 2017 8:25 AM EDT
Do the Trump — Xi discussions this week help move the two countries toward sustainable trade relations? If so, that would reduce the risk of global trade wars. The development would be positive not only for U.S. and Chinese equity markets but broadly for emerging-market equities as well. On the other hand, if the talks end deadlocked and with mutual recriminations, expect investors to take refuge in U.S. Treasuries and German bunds.
What the Trump-Xi Meeting Will Mean for Markets
APRIL 6, 2017 10:02 AM EDT
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