In contionious of our pervious essay , we made a decision to work on our weak points and preventing to repeat pervious issues , only we want to use them in our conclusion and comparison .
According to our pervious essay we know that , The worldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration. Globalization implies the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an interconnected and interdependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, and services across national frontiers. However, it does not include unhindered movement of labor and, as suggested by some economists, may hurt smaller or fragile economies if applied indiscriminately.
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
We discussed about Prof. Dani Rodrik and Deepak Lal about globalization and made this conclude at the end , that : so we have to Keep the window open but don’t forget mosquito screen , this way you get the fresh air but also you keep the bugs away.
Some scientifics believe that Globalization is not new. Historically, people have left their surroundings and traveled to distant lands for four main reasons: conquest (the desire to control other countries); prosperity (the search for a better life); exploration (the desire to discover new lands); and trade (the desire to sell goods profitably). The primary agents of globalization in the past were soldiers, sailors, traders and explorers.
Earlier forms of globalization existed in the Egyptian, Medo-Persian, Babylonian, Greek and Roman empires. During the time of the Mongol empire in the Middle Ages, the famed “Silk Road” connected Central Asia and Europe, linking several civilizations.
In the years since WWII, a defining feature of globalization has been an international industrial and business structure built by multinational corporations. Many governments have adopted free market economic systems, negotiating reductions in barriers to commerce and establishing international agreements to promote trade in goods, services and investment.
A Controversial Topic
“No generation has had the opportunity, as we now have, to build a global economy that leaves no-one behind. It is a wonderful opportunity, but also a profound responsibility.” – Former U.S. President Bill Clinton
Those who support globalization point out that free trade enables companies from the rich industrialized countries to invest in poorer countries, providing jobs to local citizens and improvements to infrastructure. Many multinational corporations now reduce labor costs by outsourcing portions of their business operations to countries such as India and China. This has been particularly true of the manufacturing sector.
Foreign companies also provide wealth to local economies in the form of foreign currency when they buy local products and services. In many cases, they have built schools, colleges and hospitals for the local residents, enhancing the quality of life.
Advocates also contend that globalization allows for the mixing of people and cultures, further enabling the sharing of ideas, experiences and lifestyles. People can experience foods and other products not previously available in their own country.
Overall, supporters of globalization argue that it has brought improved standards of living and quality of life to several countries. They point to examples such as China. As a result of opening its markets to the world, China’s economy can claim an increase in per capita personal income from $1,420 in 1980 to $4,120 by 1999. In 1980, Americans earned 12.5 times as much as the Chinese per capita. By 1999, they were only earning 7.4 times as much.
Supporters cite globalization as having benefited countries in a number of ways, particularly poorer ones. For example, the percentage of people in developing countries living below $1 per day has halved in only 20 years; life expectancy in the developing world has almost doubled since WWII and is closing the gap with the developed world; between 1950 and 1999 global literacy increased from 52% to 81%.
But globalization has equally vocal opponents. In recent times, globalization has been blamed for a host of ills, including poverty in the Third World, job losses in industrialized countries and even the “Americanization” of other cultures.
In theory why is it argued that Globalisation is a good thing for poorer countries?
IS there empirical evidence to support this?
“Our global economy is out of control and performing contrary to basic principles of market economics.” – David Korten, Economist and Former Professor at the Harvard School of Business
“The whole of the global economy is based on supplying the cravings of two per cent of the world’s population.” – Bill Bryson, Best-selling Author
Where globalization means, as it so often does, that the rich and powerful now have new means to further enrich and empower themselves at the cost of the poorer and weaker, we have a responsibility to protest in the name of universal freedom. Nelson Mandela
“Anti-globalists” contend that it operates only in the interests of the rich nations and multinational corporations. They argue that such corporations exploit workers in the developing world, subjecting them to poor working conditions in “sweat shops,” and paying them salaries that they would not be allowed to get away with back home. They contend that the multinational profits are repatriated and little is invested in the communities whose labor and resources they consume.
These critics also say that the gap between the rich and poor nations is growing, and that globalization has not benefited poorer countries. Figures used frequently to back their position come from a variety of sources, including a report from the United Nations Development Program. For example, the gap in incomes between the 20% of the richest and poorest countries has grown from 30 to 1 in 1960 to 82 to 1 in 1995.
By the late 1990s, the fifth of the world’s population living in the highest-income countries had:
- ۸۶% of the world’s gross domestic product—the bottom fifth just 1%.
- ۸۲% of world export markets—the bottom fifth just 1%.
- ۶۸% of foreign direct investment—the bottom fifth just 1%.
- ۷۴% of the world’s telephone lines—the bottom fifth just 1.5%. 
These anti-globalists say this rising inequality is the result of market forces. They say that given free rein, market forces give the rich the power to add to their wealth. Therefore, they argue that large corporations invest in poor countries only because they can take advantage of low wage levels or so they can access their natural resources.
Have you noticed that the nations of the world have become increasingly interconnected? Think about it. At the supermarket you can buy products from all over the earth—oranges from South Africa, olive oil from Greece, wine from Italy. You can purchase clothes made in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, or Malaysia. In the evening you turn on your Asian-made television set to watch your favorite program. Every day you drive your American, Japanese, South Korean or German-made car to work. Call customer service to discuss your telephone bill and you may well be speaking to someone in India. If you live in a big city, you have likely encountered people who have immigrated to your country.
Surfing the Internet on your computer, you can keep up to date with news anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Drought on the American and Canadian prairies affects the price of bread. Political unrest in the Ivory Coast influences the price of chocolate. Bad weather in Brazil affects the price of coffee. Acts of terrorism against the U.S. impact the New York stock markets. And political disputes between major oil-producing nations and their customers increase the price of gas.
Since the latter half of the 20th century, the international community has become more interconnected and interdependent in economic, cultural and environmental matters than ever. It seems the world is rapidly becoming a single community, a global village. Some see this as a good thing; others are not so sure.
Then there are those who believe integration is the first step toward a “new world order,” one in which sovereign nation states will be dissolved in favor of large trading blocs led by a super world government.
|Bad Impact||Good Impact|
Envirioment and green economy
Family , Divorce
Brain drain and emmigration
Globalization has not rid the world of violence.
Inquality is the one of the biggest our current world problem
|Eductaion , we can see rapid growth
Technology , we can see rapid growth and high competetitive
Economic growth , we can use other countries sources , China is good example
Govement and democracy , in our pervious essay we mentioned about China , rise all over the world since the 1980s
creat greater opportunities for firms
“Globalization has changed us into a company that searches the world, not just to sell or to source, but to find intellectual capital – the world’s best talents and greatest ideas.” Jack Welch 
Now we have to explain more about above chart :
Psychology Changes :
“we are so far removed from the realities of production & work that we inhabit a dream world of artificial stimuli & televised experience.”
Another change of psychology → many historians – of – the – now note that globalization has also led to a celebration of invdividualism, particulary in the wake of the failuers of the marxist collectivist utopais. The generation that lived through the despression & world war2 saw large-scale collectivist responses to boyh those crises & they were responses that limited freedom. Like, the military draft, for instance, which limited your freedom, you know, not to be a soldier or the collectivis of health insurance seen in the most of the post- war west which limited your freedom to go vankrupt from health care cost or also government programs like social security, which limit your freedom not to payfor old people’s retirement.
But since 1960s, the ascendant idea of personal freedom minimallylimited by government intervention has become very powerfull, even the catholic church was part of this new search for indivdual freedom, as the second weakened central authority, made concessions to individual styles of worship, even said that people of different religions could go to heaven . what good is heaven
Leo tolstoy says:” all happy families are a like, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its awn way.”
During 20th centery we can see , divorce rates have skyrocketed in the past few decades & not just in the us. By the turn of the 21th centery, divorce rates in china reached nearly 25% with 70% of those divorces initated by women.
Technology has also driven families apart, as parents & children spend increasing time alone in front of their individual screens, sharing fewer experiences. The biggest conseqence of globalization & the ensuing rise in human population has been humanity’s effect an the enviroment. While populations have increased partly thanks to better yields from existing farmland, much more land has also been brought under cultivation in the past half-century often this meant cutting down trees in valuable.
We are destroying our Rainforests , the best example is amazon but it happens worldwilde .We are losing land not just for food, but also to grow the global economy
As worldwide production & consumption increases we use more resources, especially water & fossil fuels.
Globalization has made the average human richer & rich people tend to use more of everything but especially energy this has already resulted in climate change which will likely accelearte.
Virtuous cycle of more efficiency making things cheaper which lead to buy more & which increased demand but from the perspective of the planet, each turn in that cycle takes somethings; more land under cultivation, more carbon emissions & etc. that can not go on forever . but worryingly our current models of economic growth do not allow for any other way.
More travel between population centers. China has seen 150 million people leave the courtyside for cities in the last 20 years.
Good Impact of Globalization on different :
Picture of shanghai and Dubai ۱۹۹۰ → ۲۰۱۰
In 1960 → trade accounted for 24% of the worlds GDP & today it is more than double that
Globalization has good impact on democracy but China experience shown that we do not need democracy in order to experience economic growth. But for a few countries like Brazil & India, the combination of democracy & economic liberalism has unleashed impressive growth that has lifted millions out of poverty.
Emigration and brain drain :
as we mentioned in our pervious essay globalization has high imapct for emmigration and brain drain . it can be so useful for some advanced countries and very dangerous for poor and developing country .
War of Globalization :
While we can see some trends to prevent movement of globalization like , Trumponic and Brexit but on the othe hand , we can see the new silk road .
There are strong commercial and geopolitical forces at play here, first among which is China’s vast industrial overcapacity – mainly in steel manufacturing and heavy equipment – for which the new trade route would serve as an outlet. As China’s domestic market slows down, opening new trade markets could go a long way towards keeping the national economy buoyant.
Hoping to lift the value of cross-border trade to $2.5 trillion within a decade, President Xi Jinping has channelled nearly $1 trillion of government money into the project. He’s also encouraging state-owned enterprises and financial institutions to invest in infrastructure and construction abroad.
“It is not an economic project, it is a geopolitical project — and it is very strategic,” Nadège Rolland, an analyst at the National Bureau for Asian Research, told foreignpolicy.com. He’s not alone in suspecting China of a tactical repositioning in the global economy; it’s clear that relationships with the ASEAN region, Central Asia and European countries stand to improve significantly if China directs more of its capital into developing infrastructure overseas.
Moreover, by striking up economic and cultural partnerships with other countries, China cements its status as a dominant player in world affairs.
Doudou Diene, the writer of the Foreword in the book The Silk Roads: Highways of culture and commerce, wrote “… The fabled Silk Roads, far from being mere trade routes, were also cultural highways that had played a pivotal role in linking the East and West…”
Conclusion for implying globalization:
Also it is good consider always Prof. Rodrik’s theory which says : “I have an “impossibility theorem” for the global economy that is like that. It says that democracy, national sovereignty and global economic integration are mutually incompatible: we can combine any two of the three, but never have all three simultaneously and in full.”
We believe we are going toward Glolocalization instead of Globalization so for our present situation in Iran the best option is to work on glolocalization and sign contract with some others countries those who have the same situation and target .
We use all materials of this essay from our pervious essay but also we have used some other refernces which we mention in the below : https://realtruth.org/articles/070223-001-globalization.html  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/globalization.html  https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/globalization.html
Stan muller in youtube